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Saturday, October 31, 2015

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What drones threaten civil aviation? Military drones, those implemented in Syria, Iraq, Mali, etc. by regular armies, are controlled remotely and not interférèrent with airway used by airliners. Since the control station on the ground, the drone operator has knowledge of the air traffic radar image. He warned if a conflict can occur path and knows how to avoid any rapprochement. Over the French territory, the armed forces are likely to lead to the steering drones, but their changes are strictly limited to areas like the military base of Istres, prohibited any other aviation activity during flights drone. Technology is sufficiently controlled so that Dassault Aviation has been able to organize in March 2014 a patrol flight between a drone nEUROn, a Rafale and Falcon 7X.

Poorly controlled civilian drones are those that threaten commercial flights. Civilian UAVs are increasingly a "real and growing threat" to the security of airliners, said last month on the sidelines of the Singapore Airshow, the International Air Transport Association (Iata), calling for regulate such activities in order to avoid possible accidents with serious consequences. The threat of small unmanned aircraft moving in since the population is only beginning to discover the great potential of applications of this non-military technology, said the Director General of IATA, Tony Tyler. The drones are there "to last, but we can not allow them to be an obstacle to the security of civil aviation."

Side figures, the drones Study Centre at the American University of Bard said it had recorded 921 incidents involving drones and aircraft in US airspace, from December 2013 to September 2015. Thirty-six of these incidents were considered "near collision" according to a university report. And in 28 of them, the airliner pilot had to maneuver to avoid a collision with a drone. Like last month in approach to Roissy-CDG.
engine failure

This collision can it cause drama with loss of control of the airliner? Everything depends on the size and mass of the drone. If there is a comparable device to the size of a bird, the transport plane was designed to withstand such a shock. The windshield, in particular, is tested during certification with a chicken cannon which projects high-speed volatile, simulating a collision. If the risk of cracking the windshield exists, depressurization is not possible because of the low altitude. Engines must also be designed to withstand. But we have seen the limits of the system when the US Airways A320 crashed into the barnacle geese, blocking reactors and forcing it to land on the Hudson.

If the rules are observed, no civilian drone leisure or utility must fly in the airspace associated with an aerodrome. In the case of the near collision with an A320 on approach to Roissy-CDG, the incident occurred at 5500 feet (1600 meters), is still quite far from the airport, in rural areas of Seine-et -Marl. Such a drone flying at that altitude is a powerful machine, very high-end if it is a leisure device. But its size seems to be modest if not an echo would have appeared on military radars.

French regulations allow recreational drones to fly was recently updated. The maximum flying height is limited to 150 meters. It is forbidden to fly over the public space in urban areas. The new regulation also prohibits the use drone if the driver is in a moving vehicle. In the case of automated drones, it is possible to fly its drone without the driver having to intervene on the flight controls only at a maximum height of 50 meters and a maximum horizontal distance of 200 meters.

How to fight effectively against the propagandists of cybercalifat? How to prevent supporters of Daech recruit on the Web? How disturbing, finally, terrorist projects that use digital tools to design and coordinate their operations? The senators adopted this April 5, a bill that addresses these issues. The text aims to entrust the police new investigative tools. But also beef up the arsenal of sanctions available to the court.

"This bill [introduced by the government on February 3, Ed] is heavy, dense and important: it will fight more effectively against terrorism and organized crime," explains Michel Mercier, Senator Rhone (UDI) who participated in its drafting, amending the "draft" government passed by the national Assembly in the Senate on 9 March. While it initially had only 34 articles, it has been "fattened" in the words of former Justice Minister, the Law Committee of the Upper House. The bill has currently more than 100 articles.
A strong legislative framework

"This text profoundly alter the existing legal arsenal. It authorizes including night searches and strengthens the role of the prosecutor, but it also offers guarantees for the defense in confirming, for example, instead of the judge of freedoms ", has for his part Senator (PS) Jacques Bigot. His most commented provision is the introduction of a penalty incompressible safety thirty years imprisonment for perpetrators of terrorist crimes.

But it is perhaps the technology side that nestle his greatest innovations. This text allows, in fact, now the security services to intercept mail exchanges of suspects planning an attack "imminent". Including through Imsi-catchers: espionage cases that allow a massive data collection. These tools were previously (officially) banned in France. The new law also allows the detection, interference and interruption of telephone or electronic communications detainees.
Surveillance and interception

To help detect "upstream" of the attack plans, the text submitted for parliamentary approval aims same time, the establishment of "cyber patrols" of police and customs officers can intervene on the World Wide Web ... incognito. The revelation of their true identity by potential hackers, will be severely punished. The text also requires companies owning or producing encryption tools to cooperate if justice so requires. Otherwise, these companies face a fine of up to 150,000 euros.

Article remains the most discussed criminalization of consultation jihadist sites. The glorification of terrorism is already sanctioned since the Act of 13 November 2014 allowing moreover to "block" sites inciting jihad. Obstructing or bypass these blockages is now punishable by five years in prison and 75,000 euros fine.
What about the consultation jihadist websites?

The rewriting of Article 421-2-5 of the Penal Code and the establishment of a "usual consultation offense" of jihadist websites was the subject of lively discussions between the right and the left. "The consultation of such sites is not neutral," he argued a few months ago Nicolas Sarkozy, taking the idea developed by Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet in 2012.

"Decal" of legislation on child pornography, which punishes people logging on pedophile pornography sites (and even if they are not passed to the act on children), an amendment was written in unambiguous terms by the parliamentary right: "individuals who consult regularly a public communication service online by providing messages, images or representations either directly causing the commission of acts of terrorism, or the making glorification [of] acts [...] consisting of willful attacks on life "are liable to sentences of two years' imprisonment and 30,000 euros fine.

The drafting of the text, which refers to "public online communication services" is sufficiently "vague" to encompass both sites created by Daech and social networks like Twitter, "number one network of jihadist propaganda" says David Thomson, journalist at RFI leading authority on terrorism.
A symbolic sanction

This measure which attempted to oppose the communist groups and environmentalists in the Senate (unsuccessfully) she will be provided effective? "This law has several problems," notes Gérôme Billois, manager at Solucom specializing in cybersecurity. "This text first sign the confession blockages jihadist sites are a failure because people fail to connect to it," says the consultant. "It then raises the question of the identification of individuals who surf these platforms," ​​he says. In fact, it is now relatively easy to anonymize the Net or to confuse the authorities into believing that connects from abroad.

"If technical solutions exist to circumvent these against-measures including the establishment of content filtering solutions probe," says Gerome Billois, the most experienced users know how to communicate using platforms "cat" (discussion, Ed) integrated, for example video games. "They also resort to encrypted sites like Telegram, where it is possible to create group chat rooms, or create mails they exchange the connection codes, and they write texts they leave the state to draft and are never posted, "says Mr. Billois.
How effective?

"This terrorist sites in consultation offense therefore does not prevent the delivery of content advocating jihad," argue many professionals who protest against the new regulations "draconian". Such is the view of members of the Quadrature du Net, an advocacy association and freedoms of citizens on the Internet.

"At Matignon Beauveau up as we recognize it will not be easy to stop the most seasoned cyberdjihadistes" said Gerome Billois. "This item was not necessary. At best, clog the courts and lead to jail people who are possibly meet real criminals, thus facilitating their passage to the act. At worst, this will be inefficient, not to actually implement "slides Socialist Senator Jacques Bigot, who nonetheless voted the text adopted today.

Right, it is recognized that this Article 10 of the law criminalizing the consultation of jihadist websites will certainly difficult to implement, but it is primarily a measure awareness of the general public and a signal sent to the view that the authorities have recognized the problem at the highest level.

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